Conversion Table and Useful Tips




Standard Oven Temperature Conversion Table

Gas Mark Fahrenheit Celsius Description
1/4 225 110 Very Cool/Very Slow
1/2 250 130 Very Cool/Very Slow
1 275 140 Cool
2 300 150 Cool
3 325 170 Very Moderate
4 350 180 Moderate
5 375 190 Moderate
6 400 200 Moderately Hot
7 425 220 Hot
8 450 230 Hot
9 475 240 Very Hot

 

Common Abbreviations Used

Code Description
tsp Teaspoon
Tbsp Tablespoon
Oz Ounce
lbs (or lb) Pound
gm Grams
Kg Kilograms
ml Millilitre
l Litre

 Weight Conversion Table

   
Imperial Metric
1 Ounce (Oz) 28.4 g
1 Pound (lbs) 454 g
   
Metric Imperial
1 Kg 2.2 Pounds (lbs)

 

Liquid Measurements  Conversion Table
American Liquid Measures  
1 gallon  4 quarts  3.79 L                                      (Usually rounded to 4 L) 
1 quart  2 pints  0.95 L                                      (Usually rounded to 1 L) 
1 pint  2 cups  16 fl oz or  450 ml                   (Usually rounded to 500 ml) 
1 cup  8 fl oz  240 ml                                     (Usually rounded to 250 ml) 
1 Tbsp  1/2 fl oz 16 ml                                       (Usually rounded to15ml) 
1 tsp  1/3 Tbsp  5 ml 

 

U.S. measurements -Metric equivalentConversion Table
1 teaspoon  5 milliliters( ml)
1 Tablespoon 16 ml
1/4 cup  60 ml
1/2 cup  20 ml
3/4 cup  180 ml
1 cup  240 ml       

 

Standard Liquid MeasureConversion Table
2 fluid oz 50 ml
3 fluid oz 75 ml
4 fluid oz 125 ml
5 fluid oz 150 ml
8 fluid oz 225ml
10 fluid oz 275 ml
15 fluid oz 425 ml
16 fluid oz 450 ml
20 fluid oz 575 ml

 

British Liquid Measures- US equivalentConversion Table
1UK liquid oz   0.96 US oz.
1 pint             570 ml  (20 fl oz)
1 tea cup   1/3 pint
1 Tablespoon 15 ml
1 Dessertspoon  10 ml
1 teaspoon 5 ml (=1/3 Tablespoon)

 

Liquid or Volume Measures (approximate)Conversion Table
1 tsp  1/3 Tbsp (5 ml)
1 Tbsp 1/2 fluid oz (3 tsp or 15 ml or 15 cc )
2 Tbsp 1 fluid oz (1/8 cup or 6 tsp or 30 ml or 30 cc)
1/4 cup  2 fluid oz ( 4 Tbsp or 59ml)
1/3 cup 2 2/3 fluid oz (5 Tbsp + 1tsp or 79 ml)
1/2 cup  4 fluid oz (8 Tbsp and 118 ml)
2/3 cups 1/3 fluid oz (10 Tbsp and 2 tsp or 158 ml)
3/4 cup 6 fluid oz (12 Tbsp or 177 ml)
7/8 cup 7 fluid oz (14 Tbsp or 207 ml)
1 cup 8 fluid oz (1/2 pint or 16 Tbsp or 237 ml)
2 cups 16 fluid oz (1 pint or 32 Tbsp or 473 ml)
4 cups 32 fluid oz  (1 quart or 946 ml)
1 pint 16 fluid oz (1 pint or 32 Tbsp or 473 ml)
2 pints 32 fluid oz (1 quart or 946 ml or 0.946 liters)
8 pints 1 gallon (128 fluid oz or 4 quarts or 3785 ml or 3.78 liters)

Notes:

1 liquid ounce (UK) equals 0.96 liquid ounce (USA).
*Australian tablespoon is 20 ml, UK is 15 ml, and American is 16 ml.

 Australian Liquid MeasurementsConversion Table
Metric Imperial Cup
30 ml 1 fl oz  
60 ml 2 fl oz ¼ cup
80 ml 3 ½ fl oz ⅓ cup
100 ml 2 ¾ fl oz  
125 ml 4 fl oz ½ cup
150 ml 5 fl oz  
180 ml 6 fl oz ¾ cup
200 ml 7 fl oz  
250 ml 8 ¾ fl oz 1 cup
375 ml 13 fl oz 1 ½ cups
430 ml 15 fl oz 1 ¾ cups
500 ml 17 fl oz 2 cups
750 ml 26 fl oz 3 cups
1 L 35 fl oz 4 cups
1 ¼ L 44 fl oz 5 cups
2 L 70 fl oz 8 cups

 

Common Ingredient Equivalents

Onions, raw, sliced

1/8 cup 15 g 0.4 oz
1/4 cup 25 g 0.9 oz
1/3 cup 35 g 1.2 oz
3/8 cup 40 g 1.3 oz
1/2 cup 50 g 1.8 oz
5/8 cup 65 g 2.2 oz
2/3 cup 65 g 2.4 oz
3/4 cup 75 g 2.6 oz
7/8 cup 90 g 3.1 oz
1 cup 100 g 3.5 oz
2 cups 200 g 7.1 oz
4 cups 400 g 14.1 oz

 

Butter
1 stick = 4 ounces = 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup
4 sticks = 16 ounces = 32 tablespoons = 2 cups

Chocolate
1 ounce = 1/4 cup grated
6 ounces chips = 1 cup chips
1 pound cocoa = 4 cups cocoa

Creams
Half and half = 1/2 milk + 1/2 cream = 10.5 to 18 percent butterfat
Light cream = 18 percent butterfat
Light whipping cream = 30 to 26 percent butterfat
Heavy cream = whipping cream = 36 percent or more butterfat
Double cream = extra-thick double cream = clotted or Devonshire cream = 42 percent butterfat

Eggs
1 large egg (approximately) = 1 tablespoon yolk + 2 tablespoons white
1 cup = 4 jumbo = 4 to 5 extra-large = 5 large = 5 to 6 medium = 7 small

Flour
1 pound = 4 cups all-purpose or bread flours = 4 3/4 cups cake flour
1 cup sifted cake flour = 7/8 cup sifted all-purpose
1+ cup self-rising flour = 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour + 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder + 1/2 teaspoon salt

Lemon
1 lemon = 1 to 3 tablespoons juice, 1 to 1 1/2 teaspoons grated zest
4 large lemons = 1 cup juice = 1/4 cup grated zest

Onion
1 pound = 2 1/2 cups sliced or chopped

Sugars
1 pound white = 2 cups white = 454 grams
1 pound packed brown = 2 1/4 cups packed brown
1 cup packed brown = 1 cup white
1 pound superfine sugar = 1 cup white sugar = 190 grams
1 pound powdered sugar = 3 1/2 to 4 cups
1 3/4 cups powdered sugar = 1 cup white sugar
1 cup powdered sugar = 80 grams
100 grams white sugar = 1/2 cup

Yeast
1 cake = 3/5 ounce = 1 packet dry = 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 teaspoons dry

 

Common substitutes: Conversion Table  
Allspice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon plus 1/2 tsp ground cloves.
Apple pie spice 1 tsp 1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom.
Arrowroot, as thickener 1 Tbsp 2 Tbsp all-purpose flour.
    1 Tbsp cornstarch.
Baking powder,  1 tsp  1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 tsp cream of tartar and 1/4 tsp cornstarch;
 double acting         1/4 tsp baking soda plus 5/8 tsp cream of tartar;
          1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
          1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
          1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid in recipe by 1-2 Tbsp);
          1 1/2 tsp phosphate or tartrate baking powder.
Bay leaf, crushed 1 tsp       1 whole bay leaf.
Brandy 1/4 cup       1 tsp brandy extract plus enough water or liquid called for in recipe to make 1/4 cup.
Bread crumbs 1/4-1/3 cup       1 slice bread;
 dry         1/4 cup cracker crumbs;
          2/3 cup rolled oats;
 soft 1/2-3/4 cup       1 slice of bread.
Broth, beef or chicken 1 cup       1 bouillon cube, 1 tsp (1 envelope) powdered broth base or 1 tsp instant granules dissolved in 1 cup water.
Butter 1 cup       1 cup margarine;
          7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt;
          7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt;
          7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 tsp salt.
     
     
     
     
Catsup 1 cup       1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar and 2 Tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking).
Chili Sauce 1 cup       1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 Tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, and dash of ground cloves and allspice.
Chives, finely chopped 1 Tbsp       1 Tbsp green onion tops, finely chopped.
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 oz       3 Tbsp cocoa plus 1 Tbsp butter or fat;
          3 Tbsp carob powder plus 2 Tbsp water.
semisweet 1-2/3 oz       1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp sugar.
Chocolate chips, semisweet, melted 6 oz pkg        2 squares (2 oz) unsweetened chocolate, 2 Tbsp shortening and 1/2 cup sugar melted (2/3 cup).
  (2/3 cup)  
Coconut, grated, dry 1 Tbsp       1 1/2 tbsp fresh coconut, grated.
Coconut milk 1 cup       1 cup milk.
Coconut cream 1 cup       1 cup cream.
Cornstarch 1 Tbsp       2 Tbsp all-purpose flour;
          2 Tbsp granular tapioca;
          1 Tbsp arrowroot.
Corn syrup 1 cup       1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup water or other liquid called for in recipe;
          1 cup honey.
Cracker crumbs 3/4 cup       1 cup dry bread crumbs.
Cream: 1 cup       1 1/2 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk;
 half & half (10-12% fat)         1/2 cup coffee cream plus 1/2 cup milk;
          1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted.
 coffee (20% fat) 1 cup       3 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk.
 heavy (36-40% fat) 1 cup       1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk (for baking only, will not whip).
 sour 1 cup       7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk;
          1 cup yogurt;
          1 1/8 cup powdered nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup warm water and 1 Tbsp vinegar (mixture will thicken in refrigerator in a few hours);
          1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 Tbsp vinegar (allow to stand 5 minutes before using);
          1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup smooth cottage cheese blended together;
          7/8 cup milk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 2 Tbsp butter or margarine.
 whipped cream 2 cups       1 cup chilled evaporated milk plus 1/2 tsp lemon juice, whipped until stiff.
Cream of tartar 1/2 tsp       1 1/2 tsp lemon juice or vinegar.
Dill, fresh 1 head       1 tsp dill seed.
Eggs  1 egg        2 1/2 Tbsp dried, sifted eggs plus 2 1/2 Tbsp water;
 whole, large  (3 1/3 Tbsp)       3 1/3 Tbsp frozen egg yolks, thawed;
          1/2 tsp baking powder, 1 Tbsp vinegar and 1 Tbsp liquid (in baking);
          1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 Tbsp cornstarch in baking;
          Soften 1 Tbsp unflavored gelatin in 3 Tbsp cold water, add 3 tsp boiling water, cool and beat until frothy, add to recipe (reduce other liquid by 2 Tbsp);
          1/4 cup commercial egg substitute.
 whites 1 egg white        2 tsp dried egg white plus 2 Tbsp water;
  (2 Tbsp)       2 Tbsp frozen egg whites, thawed.
 yolks 1 egg yolk        2 Tbsp dried egg yolks plus 2 tsp water;
  (1 1/3 Tbsp)       4 tsp frozen egg yolks, thawed.
Flour,  1 cup       7/8 cup all-purpose or bread flour.
 pastry    
 cake 1 cup       7/8 cup all-purpose flour (1 cup less 2 Tbsp).
 white, all-purpose  1 Tbsp       1/2 Tbsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch or arrowroot;
for thickening         1 Tbsp quick-cooking tapioca;
          1 Tbsp waxy rice or corn flour;
          2 Tbsp granular cereal;
          2 Tbsp browned flour;
          1 1/2 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
 white, all-purpose
for baking
1 cup       1 1/2 cups bread crumbs;
Note: Specialty flours added to yeast bread recipes will result in a reduced volume and heavier product.         1 1/8 cups cake flour (1 cup plus 2 Tbsp);
          7/8 to 1 cup corn meal;
          1/2 cup cornstarch plus 1/2 cup rye, potato or rice flour (sift together 6 times, use with 2 tsp baking powder per cup in quick breads as wheat flour allergy substitute);
          13/16 cup gluten flour (1 cup less 3 Tbsp);
          5/8 cup potato flour;
          7/8 cup rice flour;
          1 1/3 cups rolled oats;
          1 1/4 cups rye flour;
          1/8 cup soy, cottonseed, peanut or carob flour plus 7/8 cup all-purpose flour;
          1/3 cup wheat germ plus 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
          1 cup minus 1 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
 white, all-purpose,  1 cup       1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/4 tsp baking powder and 1/4 tsp salt.
self-rising    
Garlic 1 clove, small       1/8 tsp garlic powder or instant minced garlic;
          1/2-1 tsp garlic salt (reduce amount salt called for in recipe).
Gelatin, flavored 3-oz package       1 Tbsp plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice.
Ginger, candied or raw 1 Tbsp       1/8 tsp powdered ginger.
Herbs, fresh 1 Tbsp       1 tsp dried herbs.
Honey 1 cup       1 1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe).
Horseradish, grated fresh 1 Tbsp       2 Tbsp bottled horseradish.
Italian seasoning 1 tsp       1/4 tsp basil, 2/3 tsp dried parsley, and pinch oregano.
Lemon, whole 1 lemon       1 to 3 Tbsp juice, plus 2 to 2 1/2 tsp grated rind.
 juice 1 tsp       1/2 tsp vinegar.
 grated rind or peel 1 tsp       1/2 tsp lemon extract.
Lemon grass 1 Tbsp       1 Tbsp lemon peel.
Maple sugar, grated 1 Tbsp       1 Tbsp white sugar;
  1/2 cup       1 cup maple syrup (decrease liquid by 1/2 cup).
Maple syrup about 2 cups       Combine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water, bring to clear boil; take off heat; add 1/2 tsp maple flavoring.
Marshmallows, miniature 1 cup       10 large marshmallows.
Mayonnaise (for use in  1 cup       1 cup yogurt, sour cream or cottage cheese pureed in blender (use for all or part of mayonnaise called for in recipe).
salads and salad dressings)    
Milk,  1 cup       1 cup minus 1 Tbsp sweet milk, plus 1 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice; let stand 5 minutes;
 buttermilk or sour         1 cup sweet milk plus 1 1/4-1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar;
          1 cup yogurt (plain).
 skim 1 cup       1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 7/8 cup water.
 whole 1 cup       1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water;
          1 cup skim, 2% or reconstituted dry milk;
          1 cup soy or almond milk;
          1 cup fruit juice or potato water in baking;
          1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter in baking;
          1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp baking soda (decrease baking powder by 2 tsp).
 sweetened condensed 1 cup       Combine 1 cup plus 2 Tbsp dry milk with 1/2 cup warm water and 3/4 cup sugar, mix well, may set pan in bowl of hot water to dissolve sugar;
    Mix together 2 eggs,t cup brown sugar,1 tsp vanilla,2 tbsp flour,1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/4 tsp milk
Mint leaves, fresh chopped 1/4 cup       1 Tbsp dried mint leaves.
Molasses 1 cup       3/4 cup sugar, increase liquid by 5 Tbsp, decrease baking soda by 1/2 tsp, add 2 tsp baking powder;
          3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 tsp cream of tartar, increase liquid in recipe by 5 Tbsp.
Mushrooms, fresh 1 lb       3 oz dried plus 1 1/2 cups water;
          1 8-oz can, drained weight.
Mustard, dry 1 tsp       1 Tbsp prepared mustard;
          1/2 tsp mustard seeds.
Nuts 1 cup       1 cup rolled oats, browned (in baked products).
Oil (for sauteing) 1/4 cup       1/4 cup melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening or lard.
Onion 1 small       1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion;
          1 1/3 tsp onion salt;
          1 to 2 Tbsp instant minced onion;
          1 tsp onion powder.
Onion powder 1 tsp       1/4 cup fresh onion, chopped.
Orange 1 medium       6 to 8 Tbsp juice; 3/4 cup diced; 2 to 3 Tbsp grated rind.
Orange peel, dried 1 Tbsp       2 or 3 Tbsp grated fresh orange peel (peel of medium orange).
Parsley, fresh 1 Tbsp       1 tsp parsley flakes.
Pepper, white 1 tsp       1 tsp black pepper.
Peppers, green or red bell, dried 1 Tbsp       3 Tbsp fresh bell pepper, dried chopped.
Pimento 2 Tbsp, chopped       3 Tbsp fresh red bell pepper;
          1 Tbsp dried red pepper, rehydrated.
Pumpkin pie spice 1 tsp       1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp ginger, 1/8 tsp allspice and 1/8 tsp nutmeg.
Rennet 1 tablet       1 Tbsp liquid rennet.
Rice 1 cup cooked       1 cup converted, regular brown or wild rice, cooked.
          1 cup bulgur or pearl barley, cooked.
Rum 1/4 cup       1 Tbsp rum extract plus enough liquid to make 1/4 cup.
Shortening, melted 1 cup       1 cup cooking oil.
 solid 1 cup       1 cup minus 2 Tbsp lard;
          1 cup butter or margarine (decrease salt in recipe by 1/2 tsp).
Sour cream, commercial 1 cup       (see cream, sour).
Sugar, brown 1 cup       1 cup granulated sugar;
          1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup unsulphured molasses;
          1/2 cup liquid brown sugar.
 confectioners or powdered 1 cup       3/4 cup granulated sugar (for uses other than baking).
 granulated 1 cup       1 cup firmly packed brown sugar;
          1 1/3 cup confectioners sugar (for uses other than baking);
          1 cup corn syrup, reduce other liquid by 1/4 cup (never replace more than 1/2 of sugar called for in recipe with corn syrup);
          13/16 cup honey (1 cup less 3 Tbsp); reduce liquid in recipe by 3 Tbsp for every cup of honey added; add a pinch of baking soda to neutralize acidity;
          3/4 to 1 cup maple syrup minus 3 Tbsp other liquid;
          1 cup molasses or sorghum plus 1/2 tsp baking soda; omit or decrease baking powder by 1 tsp; reduce other liquid by 6 Tbsp;
          1 cup raw sugar.
 noncaloric solution 1/8 tsp        1 tsp granulated sugar;
  2 Tbsp       1 cup granulated sugar.
 noncaloric grains 1/4 tsp       1 tsp granulated sugar;
  1/4 cup       1 cup granulated sugar.
Tapioca, quick-cooking 1 1/2-2 Tbsp       4 Tbsp pearl tapioca, soaked.
 quick-cooking for thickening 1 Tbsp       1 Tbsp flour.
Tomatoes, fresh 2 cups, chopped       1 16-oz can, drained.
 packed 1 cup       1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water.
 canned 1 cup       1 1/3 cups diced tomatoes simmered 10 minutes.
Tomato juice 1 cup       1/2 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup water.
Tomato sauce 2 cups       3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water.
Tomato soup 1 10 3/4 oz. can       1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/4 cup water.
Vanilla bean 1/2 bean       1 Tbsp vanilla extract.
Worcestershire sauce 1 tsp       1 tsp bottled steak sauce.
Yeast, active dry (1/4 oz) 1 package       2 1/2 tsp dry yeast or 1 compressed yeast cake.
Yogurt 1 cup       1 cup buttermilk;
          1 cup cottage cheese, blended until smooth;
          1 cup sour cream.
* For conversion to metrics, use the following equivalents: 
1 tsp = 5 milliliters 
1 lb = .45 kilograms 
1 Tbsp = 15 milliliters 
1 cup = .24 liters 
1 oz = 28 grams

 

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Equivalent measures

a pinch       1/8 tsp

3 tsp             1 Tbsp

1/4 cup        4 Tbsp

1/3 cup         5 Tbsp + 1 tsp

1/2 cup         8 Tbsp

1 cup              16 Tbsp

2 cups            1 pint

1 quart           2 pints

4 quarts 1 gallon

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Dry Or Weight Measurements

(approximate)  
 Conversion Table
   
1 oz
 
28.35 grams
2 oz    56 grams
3 oz    85 grams
4 oz
 
125 grams
8 oz  1/2 lb 240 grams
12 oz  3/4 lb
375 grams
16 oz 1 lb  454 grams
32 oz 2 lb  907 grams
35.2 oz 2.2 lb, 1000 gram(1 kg)

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Weights: ounces to grams Conversion Table

(approximate)  
1/2 oz
13 gms
 1 oz  28 gms
1 1/2 oz  40 gms
2 oz 50 gms
2 1/2 oz 60 gms
3 oz  75 gms     
3 1/2 oz 105 gms 105 gms
4 oz 125 gms
4 1/2 oz 135 gms
5 oz  150 gms
6 oz 175 gms
7 oz 200 gms
8 oz  225 gms
9 oz  250 gms
10 oz 275 gms
12 oz 350 gms
 1 lb  453 gms